Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonology (2023)

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(Video) Articulation Vs. Phonological Disorders

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(Video) Articulation Disorder Vs. Phonological Disorder || Speech Fact Friday

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(Video) Articulation and Phonological Disorders - Steven

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(Video) DDPE Module 7: Motor Speech, Articulation, and Speech Sound Inventory

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(Video) Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children

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What are the 4 types of articulation disorders? ›

What Are Speech Sound (Articulation) Disorders
  • Organic speech sound disorder. ...
  • Functional speech disorder. ...
  • Developmental phonological disorder. ...
  • Developmental apraxia of speech. ...
  • Developmental dysarthria.

What is a speech sound disorder phonology? ›

Speech sound disorders include:

Phonological process disorders: A phonological process disorder occurs when a child makes predictable and typical patterns of speech sound errors. The mistakes may be common in young children learning speech skills, but when they continue past a certain age, it may be a disorder.

What is articulation phonological disorders? ›

Articulation and phonology (fon-ol-oji) refer to the way sound is produced. A child with an articulation disorder has problems forming speech sounds properly. A child with a phonological disorder can produce the sounds correctly, but may use them in the wrong place.

What is speech articulation disorder? ›

Children with articulation disorder have trouble with the motor functions required to make certain speech sounds. They can't coordinate their lips, tongue, teeth, palate (roof of their mouth) and lungs to produce certain sounds. They may form distorted speech sounds or swap out sounds they can't make.

What are the 5 common speech disorders? ›

Some common speech impediments are:
  • Stuttering. This condition might indicate developmental delay, an inherited condition or a sign your child's brain isn't coordinating the functions that drive speech.
  • Articulation errors. ...
  • Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia). ...
  • Apraxia. ...
  • Dysarthria. ...
  • Selective mutism.
19 Oct 2021

What is the difference between articulation and phonology? ›

Articulation disorders focus on errors (e.g., distortions and substitutions) in production of individual speech sounds. Phonological disorders focus on predictable, rule-based errors (e.g., fronting, stopping, and final consonant deletion) that affect more than one sound.

What are the three types of phonology? ›

Three categories of sounds must be recognised at the outset: phones (human sounds), phonemes (units which distinguish meaning in a language), allophones (non-distinctive units). Sounds can be divided into consonants and vowels.

What is an example of a phonology? ›

An example of phonology is the study of different sounds and the way they come together to form speech and words - such as the comparison of the sounds of the two "p" sounds in "pop-up." Being able to hear where in a word a certain consonant is found (ie.. beginning, middle, end).

What are the types of phonology? ›

There are two main types of phonological processes- Whole Segment processes and Modification type processes.

What are the 3 types of speech and language disorders? ›

Types of speech disorder include stuttering, apraxia, and dysarthria.

What are the 5 phonological processes? ›

Are Phonological Processes Normal?
  • Cluster Reduction (pot for spot)
  • Reduplication (wawa for water)
  • Weak Syllable Deletion (nana for banana)
  • Final Consonant Deletion (ca for cat)
  • Velar Fronting (/t/ for /k/ and /d/ for /g/)
  • Stopping (replacing long sounds like /s/ with short sounds like /t/)
25 May 2022

What are common articulation disorders? ›

The most common articulation errors are the “s”, “l” and “r” sounds although other speech sounds may be involved. This type of articulation problem should not be mistaken for apraxia of speech. Beaumont's articulation disorders program is designed to treat children with these isolated speech problems.

What is the most common speech sound disorder? ›

What are the Most Common Speech Disorders?
  • Dysarthria. ...
  • Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders. ...
  • Speech Sound Disorders. ...
  • Stuttering. ...
  • Voice Disorders. ...
  • Aphasia. ...
  • Selective Mutism. ...
  • Childhood Speech Delays. A child who is significantly delayed in developing their language and speech skills might have a language disorder.
24 Jul 2020

What is the most common cause of speech sound disorders? ›

The cause often isn't known, but children at risk for a speech sound disorder include those with:
  • Developmental disorders, such as autism.
  • Genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome.
  • Hearing loss.
  • Nervous system disorders, such as cerebral palsy.
  • Illnesses, such as frequent ear infections.

How many types of articulation disorders are there? ›

The 3 categories of articulation disorders include: A speech sound disorder when mistakes continue past a certain age. Children typically acquire speech sounds in a developmental sequence. Some speech sounds such as r, l, and s are harder to say than others such as p, b, and m.

What are the types of speech sound disorders? ›

There are two main types of speech sound disorders: articulation disorders and phonological disorders.

What are three common causes of articulation problems? ›

Articulation impairment can occur due to physical structural problems with the mouth or face (like cleft lip or palate), neurological/developmental disorders, hearing loss plus other causes.

What are the two most common speech sound disorders? ›

You may hear the terms "articulation disorder" and "phonological disorder" to describe speech sound disorders like this. To learn more about what you should expect your child to be able to say, see these two resources: How Does Your Child Hear and Talk?

Can a child have both an articulation and phonological disorder? ›

Co-occurrence. An articulation disorder and a phonological disorder can co-occur. That is, the same child can have BOTH.

Is speech sound a phonology? ›

Phonology is the study of the patterns of sounds in a language and across languages. Put more formally, phonology is the study of the categorical organisation of speech sounds in languages; how speech sounds are organised in the mind and used to convey meaning.

What is the difference between speech and articulation? ›

The word speech, in the context of speech therapy, encompasses all the processes of making the sounds of speech. Potential speech disorders include articulation, apraxia, stuttering, phonological and more. Articulation refers specifically to how a sound is formulated with the mouth.

How do you identify phonology? ›

Phonological awareness is the ability to recognize and manipulate the spoken parts of sentences and words. Examples include being able to identify words that rhyme, recognizing alliteration, segmenting a sentence into words, identifying the syllables in a word, and blending and segmenting onset-rimes.

What are the 4 main categories of phonological processes? ›

Phonological Processing
  • Phonological Awareness. ...
  • Phonological Working Memory. ...
  • Phonological Retrieval. ...
  • Reference.

What are phonology problems? ›

Phonological disorder is a type of speech sound disorder. Speech sound disorders are the inability to correctly form the sounds of words. Speech sound disorders also include articulation disorder, disfluency, and voice disorders.

How do you explain phonology? ›

Phonology is typically defined as “the study of speech sounds of a language or languages, and the laws governing them,”11Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English.

What are the main purpose of phonology? ›

"The aim of phonology is to discover the principles that govern the way sounds are organized in languages and to explain the variations that occur. We begin by analyzing an individual language to determine which sound units are used and which patterns they form—the language's sound system.

What are the two branches of phonology? ›

Supra-segmental phonology deals with attributes (like tone, rhythm, stress, etc.) of pronunciation which cannot be segmented. Suprasegmental phonology refers to vocal effects such as stress, tone, intonation, etc. Main suprasegmental features include stress, pitch, tone, intonation or juncture.

What are 7 phonological rules? ›

Phonological rules, Generative Theory, Assimilation, Dissimilation, Deletion, Insertion, Metathesis.

What are 3 phonological processes? ›

Many children use these processes while their speech and language are developing. Below is a list of different types of phonological processes. They are broken down into the following three areas: syllable structure, substitution, and assimilation.

How many sounds are there in phonology? ›

Note that the 44 sounds (phonemes) have multiple spellings (graphemes) and only the most common ones have been provided in this summary.

What is the difference between speech disorders and language disorders? ›

Having problems sharing our thoughts, ideas, and feelings is an expressive language disorder. It is possible to have both a receptive and an expressive language problem. When we have trouble saying sounds, stutter when we speak, or have voice problems, we have a speech disorder.

Can articulation disorder be treated? ›

Articulation disorders can make it more difficult for children to communicate and for others to understand what they are saying. With proper diagnosis, children can receive speech therapy and other treatment to correct articulation disorders and allow them to communicate more clearly and effectively.

What are the 44 phonemic sounds? ›

  • Set 1: s, a, t, p. Set 2: i, n, m, d. Set 3: g, o, c, k. Set 4: ck, e, u, r. Set 5: h, b, f, ff, l, ll, ss.
  • Set 6: j, v, w, x.
  • Set 7: y, z, zz, qu.
  • Consonant digraphs: ch, sh, th, ng.
  • Vowel digraphs: ai, ee, igh, oa, oo, ar, or, ur, ow, oi, ear, air, ure, er.
  • ay, ou, ie, ea, oi, ir, ue, wh, ph, ew, aw, au, oe, a-e.

What are the major concepts of phonology? ›

Phonology covers every linguistic analysis at all levels of language where sound is considered to be structured for conveying linguistic meaning. We deal with obvious rules in phonology such as vowel coalescence, haplology, prosodic shortening, prosodic lengthening, and the generated pattern of onomatopoeia.

What are the 9 phonological awareness skills? ›

Phonological awareness can be taught at each level (i.e., word, syllable, onset and rime, and phoneme) and includes skills such as counting, categorizing, rhyming, blending, segmenting, and manipulating (adding, deleting, and substituting).

What are the 7 different places of articulation? ›

Refers to where the sound is made in the mouth. In NAE, there are seven places of articulation: Bilabial, Labiodental, Dental, Alveolar, Palatal, Velar, and Glottal.

What are the main types of articulation? ›

Articulations may be divided into two main types, primary and secondary. Primary articulation refers to either (1) the place and manner in which the stricture is made for a consonant or (2) the tongue contour, lip shape, and height of the larynx used to produce a vowel.

How do you treat articulation disorders? ›

Articulation disorder in children can be successfully treated with speech therapy. The duration of therapy depends upon the nature of a child's misarticulations. The speech-language pathologist (SLP) you choose to consult will give you a list of words your child needs to master.

Can phonological disorders be cured? ›

Milder forms of this disorder may go away on their own by around age 6. Speech therapy may help more severe symptoms or speech problems that don't get better. Therapy may help the child create the sound. For example, a therapist can show where to place the tongue or how to form the lips when making a sound.

What are the 5 major articulators of sound? ›

Active articulators

There are five major parts of the vocal tract that move: the lips, the flexible front of the tongue, the body of the tongue, the root of the tongue together with the epiglottis , and the glottis.

What are the stages of articulation? ›

The Seven Steps of Articulation Therapy: A Guide for Parents
  • Step 1: Isolate. The first step in articulation therapy is practising saying the sound on its own/in isolation. ...
  • Step 2: Syllables. ...
  • Step 3: Words. ...
  • Step 4: Phrases and Sentences. ...
  • Step 5: Stories. ...
  • Step 6: Conversation. ...
  • Step 7: Generalisation.
14 Mar 2021

What are the four major articulators? ›

The main articulators are the tongue, the upper lip, the lower lip, the upper teeth, the upper gum ridge (alveolar ridge), the hard palate, the velum (soft palate), the uvula (free-hanging end of the soft palate), the pharyngeal wall, and the glottis (space between the vocal cords).

What are the 4 active articulators? ›

At each place of articulation, there is a constriction between an active articulator and a passive articulator. The active articulators are the lower lip and the tongue, while the passive articulators are the upper lip, the upper teeth, the roof of the mouth, and the rear wall.

What are the different types of phonological disorders? ›

Developmental phonological errors include:
  • Reduplication.
  • Consonant harmony.
  • Context-sensitive voicing.
  • Devoicing.
  • Fronting.
  • Final consonant deletion.
  • Cluster reduction.
  • Weak syllable deletion.

What are the 3 types of phonetics? ›

Phonetics is divided into three types according to the production (articulatory), transmission (acoustic) and perception (auditive) of sounds.

What are the 5 branches of phonetics? ›

  • 5 branches of phonetics? Applied, acoustic, articulatory, perceptual, experimental.
  • Applied. Practical application of phonetic knowledge. ...
  • Articulatory. Speech sound production. ...
  • Acoustic. Waveform properties of speech sounds. ...
  • perceptual. Discrimination and intelligibility of sounds. ...
  • Experimental.

What are the 4 branches of phonetics? ›

Modern phonetics has three branches: Articulatory phonetics, which addresses the way sounds are made with the articulators, Acoustic phonetics, which addresses the acoustic results of different articulations, and. Auditory phonetics, which addresses the way listeners perceive and understand linguistic signals.

What is difference between phonetics and phonology? ›

Phonetics is the study of human sounds and phonology is the classification of the sounds within the system of a particular language or languages.

What are the 9 Fricatives? ›

There are a total of nine fricative consonants in English: /f, θ, s, ∫, v, ð, z, З, h/, and eight of them (all except for/h/) are produced by partially obstructing the airflow through the oral cavity.

What are the 3 types of articulators? ›

He divided articulators into three types: (1) arbitrary (not adjustable), (2) posi- tional (axis and nonaxis types, static records), and (3) functional (axis and nonaxis types, functional records).

Can articulation disorders be cured? ›

Many speech disorders cannot be cured, but by receiving speech and language therapy with a licensed speech pathologist, many children and adults can improve their speech or adapt to alternative communication methods.


1. Articulation vs. Phonology Discussion with Dr. Kelly Farquharson
(Adventures in Speech Pathology)
2. Articulation & Phonological disorders
(The Virtual Communication Disorders Campus)
3. Speech sound development milestones and Articulation and phonological development.
(The Virtual Communication Disorders Campus)
4. Understanding Speech Sound Disorders
(Simons Searchlight)
5. Articulation vs Phonological Disorders (Part 2)
(Terrific Artic)
6. Articulation and Phonological Disorders
(UCF College of Health Professions and Sciences)
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