Concept, intuition et catégorie chez Kant (2022)


Concept, intuition et catégorie chez Kant (1)

Kant

Vous êtes en train de travailler la Critique de la raison pure, et vous cherchez à mieux comprendre le sens de ces trois notions ?

Voici les textes incontournables, dans lesquels Kant précise leur sens, parfois en les opposant.


Cela va faciliter votre lecture de l'oeuvre, ou votre travail de recherche (mémoire ou thèse) sur ce sujet...


Concept, intuition et catégorie chez Kant (2)

(Video) KANT - C'est quoi la raison pure ?

Problématiques


Pourquoi Kant oppose-t-il concept et intuition ?

Qu'entend-il par "intuition pure", ou "concept pur de l'entendement" ?

Quelle est la table des catégories ? Comment l'établit-il ?

Qu'est-ce qu'une intuition intellectuelle, ou encore une intuition interne ?


Comprendre la manière dont ces trois concepts s'articulent, c'est faire un grand pas dans la compréhension de la Critique de la raison pure

Les principaux textes de référence


Kant définit cette notion dans plusieurs passages répartis dans l'ensemble de ses ouvrages : la Critique naturellement, mais aussi les Prolégomènes ou l'Anthropologie d'un point de vue pragmatique, etc.
Les voici...

(Video) La révolution copernicienne d’Emmanuel Kant


1/ Le concept


a) Le concept comme conscience


Le concept est l’unité de la conscience de différentes représentations (le Conflit des facultés, 3S, conclusion ; AK, VII, 113)

Le concept est la conscience de l’activité dans la synthèse du divers de la représentation selon une règle de son unité (Anthropologie d’un point de vue pragmatique, 1P, §7, Remarque, AK VII, 141)


Sans la conscience que ce que nous pensons est la même chose que ce que nous pensions un instant auparavant, toute reproduction dans la série des représentations serait vaine. De fait, il y aurait, dans l’état présent, une nouvelle représentation qui n’appartiendrait nullement à l’acte par lequel elle a dû être produite peu à peu, et le divers de cette représentation ne constituerait jamais un tout parce qu’il manquerait de l’unité que seule la conscience peut lui procurer.
Si tant que je compte, j’oubliais que les unités qui sont maintenant sous mes yeux ont été peu à peu ajoutées par moi les unes aux autres, je ne connaîtrais pas la production du nombre par cette addition successive de l’unité à l’unité, ni non plus par conséquent le nombre ; car ce concept ne trouve sa consistance que dans la conscience de cette unité de la synthèse.
Le terme de concept pourrait déjà par lui-même nous induire à faire cette remarque. En effet, c’est bien cette conscience une qui réunit en une représentation le divers intuitionné peu à peu et ensuite reproduit. […] Sans cette conscience les concepts et, avec eux, la connaissance des objets sont totalement impossibles.

(Critique de la Raison pure, Analytique des concepts, 1ère déduction transcendantale, AK, IV, 79, p 182).


b) Le concept comme règle


Nous connaissons l’objet quand nous avons fait surgir dans le divers de l’intuition une unité synthétique. Or celle-ci est impossible si l’intuition n’a pu être produite par une telle fonction de la synthèse selon une règle rendant nécessaire a priori la reproduction du divers et possible un concept dans lequel ce divers s’unifie. Ainsi pensons-nous un triangle comme constituant un objet quand nous avons conscience de la combinaison de trois lignes droites selon une règle d’après laquelle une telle intuition peut en chaque occasion être présentée.
[…] Toute connaissance exige un concept, si imparfait et aussi obscur qu’il puisse être ; mais celui-ci, quant à sa forme, est toujours quelque chose de général et qui sert de règle. Ainsi le concept de corps sert-il de règle, selon l’unité du divers qu’il permet de penser, à notre connaissance des phénomènes extérieurs.

(Ibid., AK, IV, 80, p. 183)

(Video) Kant's Prolegomena - Introduction & Section 1 - "Intuition" and the Possibility of "Pure Mathematics


2/ L’intuition


De quelque manière et par quelque moyen qu’une connaissance puisse se rapporter à des objets, la modalité selon laquelle elle s’y rapporte, et dont toute pensée vise à se servir comme d’un moyen, est en tout état de cause l’intuition. Or cette dernière n’intervient que dans la mesure où l’objet nous est donné ; mais cela n’est à son tour, du moins pour nous hommes, possible que parce que l’objet affecte l’esprit sur un certain mode. La capacité de recevoir (réceptivité) des représentations par la manière dont nous sommes affectés par des objets s’appelle sensibilité. C’est donc par la médiation de la sensibilité que nous objets nous sont donnés, et c’est elle seule qui nos fournit des intuitions. […] D’une autre manière aucun objet ne peut nous être donné.
L’effet produit par un objet sur la capacité de représentation, dans la mesure où nous sommes affectés par lui, est une sensation. L’intuition qui se rapporte à l’objet à travers une sensation s’appelle empirique. L’objet indéterminé d’une intuition empirique s’appelle phénomène.

(Ibid., Esthétique transcendantale, §1, AK, III, 49, p. 117)


3/ Concept et intuition


Notre connaissance procède de deux sources fondamentales de l’esprit, dont la première est le pouvoir de recevoir les représentations (la réceptivité des impressions), la seconde le pouvoir de connaître par l’intermédiaire de ces représentations un objet (spontanéité des concepts) ; par la première nous est donné un objet, par la seconde celui-ci est pensé en relation avec cette représentation (comme simple détermination de l’esprit).
Intuition et concepts constituent donc les éléments de toute notre connaissance, si bien que ni des concepts, sans une intuition leur correspondant de quelque manière, ni une intuition sans concepts ne peuvent fournir une connaissance. Les deux éléments sont ou purs ou empiriques. Empiriques si une sensation (qui suppose la présence réelle de l’objet) y est contenue ; purs, en revanche si à la représentation n’est mêlée aucune sensation. On peut appeler cette dernière la matière de la connaissance sensible. Par conséquent une intuition pure contient exclusivement la forme sous laquelle quelque chose est intuitionné, et un concept pur uniquement la forme de la pensée d’un objet en général. Ce sont uniquement des intuitions ou des concepts purs qui sont possibles a priori : des intuitions ou des concepts empiriques ne le sont qu’a posteriori.
Si nous voulons appeler sensibilité la réceptivité de notre esprit, telle qu’elle consiste à accueillir des représentations en tant qu’il est affecté de quelque manière, en revanche, le pouvoir de produire soi-même des représentations, autrement dit la spontanéité de notre connaissance, est l’entendement. Il est dans notre nature que l’intuition ne puisse jamais être que sensible, c’est-à-dire qu’elle contienne seulement la manière dont nous sommes affectés par des objets. Par opposition, le pouvoir de penser l’objet de l’intuition sensible est l’entendement.
Aucune de ces deux propriétés n’est à privilégier par rapport à l’autre. Sans la sensibilité, nul objet ne nous serait donné, et sans l’entendement, aucun ne serait pensé. Des pensées sans contenu sont vides, des intuitions sans concepts sont aveugles. Par conséquent, il est tout aussi nécessaire de rendre sensibles ses concepts (c’est-à-dire de leur adjoindre l’objet dans l’intuition) que de se rendre intelligibles ses intuitions (c’est-à-dire de les subsumer sous des concepts). Les deux pouvoirs ou capacités ne peuvent pas non plus échanger leurs fonctions. L’entendement ne peut rien intuitionner et les sens ne peuvent rien penser. C’est seulement dans la mesure où ils se combinent que peut se produire de la connaissance.

(Critique de la Raison pure, Logique transcendantale, introduction, AK, III, 75, p. 143)


Vous trouverez d'autres textes sur ces notions, avec leurs références précises, dans la fiche ci-dessous, à télécharger gratuitement.

Cela vous permettra de comprendre plus facilement la pensée de Kant, et la manière dont ces différentes notions s'articulent entre elles à l'intérieur de son système.

Bonne lecture !

Fiche à télécharger


Concept, intuition et catégorie chez Kant (3)

(Video) Philosophy: Kant on Space Part 1


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(Video) La connaissance chez Kant

FAQs

What were Kant's two forms of intuition? ›

Kant claims that all the representations generated via sensibility are structured by two “forms” of intuition—space and time—and that all sensory aspects of our experience are their “matter” (A20/B34).

What does Kant say about intuition? ›

Kant regards an intuition as a conscious, objective representation—this is strictly distinct from sensation, which he regards not as a representation of an object, property, event, etc., but merely as a state of the subject.

What is sensible intuition in Kant? ›

Sensible intuitions have their source in the receptivity of the human mind, in that they require affection by the objects which they represent. Intellectual intuitions would not require affection but would originate intuitions spontaneously. On Kant's view, human intuition is sensible only.

What does Kant mean by concept? ›

To define, according to Kant, means to present the complete. concept of a thing within its limits and in its primary or original. character. A complete concept is one with a sufficiency of clear. predicates for the entire concept to be distinct; and the predicates.

What is the famous line of Immanuel Kant? ›

All our knowledge begins with the senses, proceeds then to the understanding, and ends with reason. There is nothing higher than reason.

Why does Kant mean when he writes thoughts without content are empty intuitions without concepts are blind? ›

So when Kant writes Categories without intuitions are empty just as intuitions without Categories are blind; he means that categories are empty without the necessary content of intuitions, and intuitions without the necessary conditioning of the Categories would not be cognisable, they would be blind as we could ...

What is intuition philosophy? ›

intuition, in philosophy, the power of obtaining knowledge that cannot be acquired either by inference or observation, by reason or experience.

What is Kant's take on the self and what does he mean? ›

The self is the product of reason, a regulative principle because the self “regulates” experience by making unified experience possible. Other such “transcendental regulative ideas” include the ideas of cosmos and God. Read Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Pure Reason.

What is the difference between empirical and pure intuitions? ›

There are two kinds of intuition: pure and empirical intuitions. Our pure intuitions are our concepts of space and time that we apply to everything we perceive. Once we have applied our pure intuitions of space and time to sensations they become empirical intuitions, that is, sensations that exist in space and time.

What is the difference between sensibility and the understanding according to Kant? ›

In the Introduction to the Transcendental Logic, Kant similarly defines sensibility as “the receptivity of our mind to receive representations insofar as it is affected in some way” while the understanding is described as “the faculty for bringing forth representations itself, or the spontaneity of cognition” (A51/B75; ...

Who proposed the positive view of the concept of the mind? ›

Gilbert Ryle

What is a concept example? ›

Concepts can be based on real phenomena and are a generalized idea of something of meaning. Examples of concepts include common demographic measures: Income, Age, Eduction Level, Number of SIblings.

What are two of Kant's important ideas about ethics? ›

What are two of Kant's important ideas about ethics? One idea is universality, we should follow rules of behaviors that we can apply universally to everyone. and one must never treat people as a means to an end but as an end in themselves.

What is Kant main philosophy? ›

His moral philosophy is a philosophy of freedom. Without human freedom, thought Kant, moral appraisal and moral responsibility would be impossible. Kant believes that if a person could not act otherwise, then his or her act can have no moral worth.

What are the maxims of Kant? ›

In Kant's deontological ethics, maxims are understood as subjective principles of action. The maxims 'Do not kill' and 'Do not steal' are examples of such subjective principles.

What does Immanuel Kant say about beauty? ›

Kant argues that beauty is equivalent neither to utility nor perfection, but is still purposive. Beauty in nature, then, will appear as purposive with respect to our faculty of judgment, but its beauty will have no ascertainable purpose – that is, it is not purposive with respect to determinate cognition.

What is the meaning of We are not rich by what we possess but by what we can do without? ›

A bad literaly version of the OP could be "we are not rich by what we posses but by what we can not have. In other words, if we can live without having a lot of things we are richer than people who can't live without possessing a lot of things.

Why does Kant say that knowledge begins with experience but all of knowledge does not arise from experience? ›

In the order of time, therefore, we have no knowledge antecedent to experience, and with experience all our knowledge begins. But though all our knowledge begins with experience, it does not follow that it all arises out of experience. Thus begins the “Introduction” to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.

How many characteristics of knowledge has Kant describe? ›

He maintains that in order to have knowledge, there must be a combination of sensory intuition and categories. According to Kant, there are twelve pure concepts of understanding.

What does Kant say about space and time? ›

Kant tells us that space and time are the pure (a priori) forms of sensible intuition. Intuition is contrasted with the conceptualization (or categorization) performed by the understanding, and involves the way in which we passively receive data through sensibility.

What are some examples of intuition? ›

You can't explain why you're making a certain call but you know it's the right thing to do. Your intuition is naturally guiding you to the right answer. Like a cat instinctively knows how far it can jump, we as humans instinctively know that we should avoid a place we believe to be dangerous.

Why is intuition important? ›

Your intuition helps you identify your purpose in life. Since your intuition is attuned to your subconscious, it can point you in the right direction and help you identify dreams that are aligned with your core values and your true sense of purpose. People who rely on their intuition are more open to new ideas.

How does the intuition work? ›

Every interaction, happy or sad, is cataloged in your memory. Intuition draws from that deep memory well to inform your decisions going forward. In other words, intuitive decisions are based on data, in a way. When we subconsciously spot patterns, the body starts firing neurochemicals in both the brain and gut.

What did Kant say about identity? ›

According to Kant, the rationalist notion of a person as a thinking substance, conscious of its own identity through time, trades on an ambiguity concerning the meaning of 'being conscious of the numerical identity of oneself at different times'.

What according to Kant is the moral worth of persons called? ›

Persons, conceived of as autonomous rational moral agents, are beings that have intrinsic moral worth. This value of persons makes them deserving of moral respect. Kant's moral theory is often referred to as the “respect for persons” theory of morality.

Who is the first philosopher that asked about the meaning of the self? ›

In Ancient Greece, the philosopher Socrates famously declared that the unexamined life was not worth living. Asked to sum up what all philosophical commandments could be reduced to, he replied: 'Know yourself. ' Knowing yourself has extraordinary prestige in our culture.

What is a pure form of intuition Kant? ›

Kant's claim that space is a pure intuition means that our original idea of space cannot be a concept, and this again is proved from the nature or essence of space itself. For space is, according to Kant, “essentially one” (B39), i.e., essentially unique.

What is pure reason according to Kant? ›

Pure practical reason (German: reine praktische Vernunft) is the opposite of impure (or sensibly-determined) practical reason and appears in Immanuel Kant's Critique of Practical Reason and Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals. It is the reason that drives actions without any sense dependent incentives.

How does Kant distinguish between pure reason and empirical knowledge? ›

Kant distinguishes between a priori knowledge (which is based on reason) and a posteriori knowledge (which is based on experience). A priori knowledge may be pure (if it has no empirical element) or impure (if it has an empirical element).

What is the highest good According to Kant? ›

We know that Kant's fundamental determination of the highest good is: “Virtue and happiness together constitute possession of the highest good in a person” (KpV, 5: 110).

Why is Kant so important? ›

Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher and one of the foremost thinkers of the Enlightenment. His comprehensive and systematic work in epistemology (the theory of knowledge), ethics, and aesthetics greatly influenced all subsequent philosophy, especially the various schools of Kantianism and idealism.

Is the mind a concept? ›

The mind is an abstract concept used to characterize thoughts, feelings, subjective states, and self-awareness that presumably arise from the brain.

What is the meaning of I think therefore I am? ›

Phrase. I think therefore I am. (philosophy) I am able to think, therefore I exist. A philosophical proof of existence based on the fact that someone capable of any form of thought necessarily exists.

Who believed that the self is the brain? ›

Interestingly, we can find an answer in today's lesson as we explore the works of Paul Churchland, specifically his theories on self and the brain. Since Churchland is a modern-day philosopher who studies the brain, let's first take a look at some older philosophical theories on the subject.

What are 3 types of concept? ›

Types of Concepts: Superordinate, Subordinate, and Basic.

What are the 5 types of concepts? ›

Developments of Concepts: 5 Types | Psychology
  • This article throws light upon the five types of developments of concepts. ...
  • Concepts are based on Actions:
  • Words are Expressions of Concepts:
  • Animistic and Realistic Concepts of Physical Objects:
  • Ego-Centric Concepts and Objective Concepts:
  • Abstraction and Generalization:

What is the best example of concept? ›

Math is a good example of a concept because equations in algebra refer to ideas of 'x', which is a concept for a certain number that one must determine. Other concepts can exist in art, literature, and many other areas of human thought.

What is the famous line of Immanuel Kant? ›

All our knowledge begins with the senses, proceeds then to the understanding, and ends with reason. There is nothing higher than reason.

What is Kantian theory in simple terms? ›

Kant's response is simple – rationality is universal, regardless of one's personal experiences and circumstances. As long as morality is derived from reason, there should be a fairly objective sense of what is virtuous and what isn't.

What is an example of Kant's moral theory? ›

For example, if you hide an innocent person from violent criminals in order to protect his life, and the criminals come to your door asking if the person is with you, what should you do? Kantianism would have you tell the truth, even if it results in harm coming to the innocent person.

What is Kant's critical theory? ›

The fundamental idea of Kant's “critical philosophy” is human autonomy. He argues that the human understanding is the source of the general laws of nature that structure all our experience; and that human reason gives itself the moral law, which is our basis for belief in God, freedom, and immortality.

Does Kant believe in free will? ›

Now, in GMS II, Kant had argued that for a will to act autonomously is for it to act in accordance with the categorical imperative, the moral law. Thus, Kant famously remarks: "a free will and a will under moral laws is one and the same" (ibd.)

How does Kant define morality? ›

Morally speaking, Kant is a deontologist; from the Greek, this is the science of duties. For Kant, morality is not defined by the consequences of our actions, our emotions, or an external factor. Morality is defined by duties and one's action is moral if it is an act motivated by duty.

What are the pure forms of intuition? ›

There are two kinds of intuition: pure and empirical intuitions. Our pure intuitions are our concepts of space and time that we apply to everything we perceive. Once we have applied our pure intuitions of space and time to sensations they become empirical intuitions, that is, sensations that exist in space and time.

What is the difference for Kant between intuitions and concepts? ›

Kant argues that concepts form when an understanding is reached of intuitions that are, in turn, gained through the senses. Intuitions, therefore, are the raw material from which concepts are forged. Like intuitions, concepts are either pure or empirical.

What is synthetic a priori knowledge? ›

synthetic a priori proposition, in logic, a proposition the predicate of which is not logically or analytically contained in the subject—i.e., synthetic—and the truth of which is verifiable independently of experience—i.e., a priori.

What is space and time according to Kant? ›

Kant tells us that space and time are the pure (a priori) forms of sensible intuition. Intuition is contrasted with the conceptualization (or categorization) performed by the understanding, and involves the way in which we passively receive data through sensibility.

What is intuition philosophy? ›

intuition, in philosophy, the power of obtaining knowledge that cannot be acquired either by inference or observation, by reason or experience.

What are the categories of understanding for Kant? ›

The table of categories
CategoryCategories
QuantityUnityPlurality
QualityRealityNegation
RelationInherence and Subsistence (substance and accident)Causality and Dependence (cause and effect)
ModalityPossibility / ImpossibilityExistence / Non-existence

How does Kant aim to show that all events have a cause? ›

“Every event must have a cause” cannot be proven by experience, but experience is impossible without it because it describes the way the mind must necessarily order its representations. We can understand Kant's argument again by considering his predecessors.

Why does Kant mean when he writes thoughts without content are empty intuitions without concepts are blind? ›

So when Kant writes Categories without intuitions are empty just as intuitions without Categories are blind; he means that categories are empty without the necessary content of intuitions, and intuitions without the necessary conditioning of the Categories would not be cognisable, they would be blind as we could ...

What is Kant's take on the self and what does he mean? ›

The self is the product of reason, a regulative principle because the self “regulates” experience by making unified experience possible. Other such “transcendental regulative ideas” include the ideas of cosmos and God. Read Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Pure Reason.

Who proposed the positive view of the concept of the mind? ›

Gilbert Ryle

What is an example of a priori? ›

So, for example, "Every mother has had a child" is an a priori statement, since it shows simple logical reasoning and isn't a statement of fact about a specific case (such as "This woman is the mother of five children") that the speaker knew about from experience.

What does Kant mean by synthetic Apriori? ›

Definition of synthetic a priori

: a synthetic judgment or proposition that is known to be true on a priori grounds specifically : one that is factual but universally and necessarily true the Kantian conception that the basic propositions of geometry and physics are synthetic a priori.

What is an example of a synthetic a priori statement? ›

For example, “5+7=12” seems to be a synthetic a priori proposition, because at the first glance the concept „12‟ doesn‟t seem to be already contained in the concept „5+7‟. Besides, some philosophers also accept “the shortest distance between two points is a straight line” as a synthetic a priori proposition.

Was Kant right about time and space? ›

Yes Kant was right about space and time (and no he was not wrong about knowledge) where being right about space and time and not being wrong about knowledge are epistemological claims. Critique of Pure Reason is a response to radical skepticism.

Is space a concept? ›

Abstract. The concept of “space” is one of the most fundamental of geographical concepts. There is no work in geography that does not certain it.

Does space and time exist? ›

In physics and, more generally, in the natural sciences, space and time are the foundation of all theories. Yet we never see spacetime directly. Rather we infer its existence from our everyday experience.

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